|Waktu : Waktu : December 5-7th, 2011, 09.00 AM - the end|
|Tempat : The Wahid Institute. Jl. Taman Amir Hamzah No. 8, Central Jakarta.|
One of the greatest challenges facing many nations in the post-Cold War period is the prevalence of sectarian conflicts based on tribal, ethnic, religious symbolic attachments. The world saw, for example, ethnic-cleansing in former Yugoslavia and genocides in Rwanda and Burundi. We also saw violent conflicts in Indonesian islands of Maluku and Poso. In fact, many countries with high density of diverse population are facing some form of conflict. Developed nations such as Germany, France and even the United States are no exception in facing the threat of primordial conflicts.
Meanwhile, there is fear that the post-9/11 world is heading towards a conflict between Muslim and Christian West civilizations. This is not an unfounded fear, given the evidence that extremists from both sides are utilizing religion to push for their political agenda. Osama bin Laden and, more recently, Anders Behring Breivik, are representative of the extreme Right from their respective religious community; they are hijacking religion to further their interest. Among Muslims, there is no doubt that there are competing factions: Between those who devote to God in love and compassion, and those who worship God with hatred towards others; between those who saw the compatibility of religion with modernity, and those who want to return to the caliphate system of the past; between those who want to coexist in peace with the West, and those who saw the West as an enemy.Evidence shows that the contestation has spread to various parts of the world, including the Southeast Asian region. Countries in this region, such as Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore, are known to have a highly diverse population. These three countries are also experiencing the development of multiculturalism, but each with its own specificity. Tensions between the ‘pribumi' (indigenous) Malays and ‘pendatang' (migrants), serve as a unique example in ethnicity and ethnoreligious studies in these countries.
Malaysia, with a population of 23 million, adopts a federal system. The majority, or rather two-third of her population comprised of Malay-Muslims, while the Chinese constitute 25% and Indians 7%. She has a history racial conflicts and thus comes with an experience in handling multiculturalism, be it from the political or economic approach.
Singapore too is a country with a cosmopolitan population. There are 5 million residents and almost half of these are not local born citizens. When the country was colonised by the British, Raffles had invited traders and workers from various ethnic and race to Singapore. In fact, according to historical records, it took just two years since the establishment of Singapore as a colony that the island saw a diverse mixture of population comprising of Malays, Chinese, Bugis, Indian, Arab, Armenian, European and others. Today, the Chinese form the majority with 74.1%, while the Malays constitute 13.4%, Indians 9.2% and others such as Europeans, Arabs and Jews constitute 3.3%. From the Census 2010, the religious composition of Singapore are: 33.3% Buddhists, 18.3% Christians, 17% No Religion, 14.7% Muslims, 10.9% Taoists, 5.1% Hindus, and 0.7% others such as Jews, Bahais, Sikhs and Zoroastrians.
The largest country in Southeast Asia is Indonesia, with a population of 230 million. This country has tremendous diversity in terms of ethnicity, tribe, language and religion. The majority of Indonesians are Muslims (88%), while Protestant Christians constitute 5%, Catholics 3%, Hindus 1.73%, Buddhists 0.61%, Confucians 0.10%, and others 0.11%.
During colonial history, Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia formed parts of the Malaya. Nonetheless, the cultural and political situation of Singapore had always been different from her neighbouring states. If Malaysia and Indonesia were dominated by ‘pribumi' (indigenous) Muslims, it was the Chinese who had been dominant in Singapore. This means that ethnoreligious issues affected Indonesia and Malaysia more than Singapore.
In addition, the advancement of globalisation has made Muslims more receptive to the multicultural framework, including Muslims in Southeast Asia. On one hand, countries with Muslim majority such as Indonesia and Malaysia are facing an influx of foreigners, be it migrants or expatriates. This phenomenon is also observed in countries where Muslims are a minority, such as Singapore.
According to R. W. Hefner, multiculturalism in Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore develops as a form of cultural transition from colonial to post-colonial era. The fact that the transition has to occur indicates the rapid development of pluralism within the three countries. At the same time, state intervention in citizenship gave rise to ethnic and ethnoreligious issues. The rule of Lee Kuan Yew (Singapore), Mahathir Mohamad (Malaysia) and Suharto (Indonesia), no doubt contributes to the rise of various ethnic and ethnoreligious issues with each country. As feared by Geertz, the cultural transition from colonial to postcolonial society had given birth to competitions that destroyed civility, while at the same time, the process had also convinced many people on the importance of building civil politics and inclusive citizenship.
The above background indicates that the challenges brought by multiculturalism is as dire in Southeast Asia, particularly in Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore, as in other parts of the world. Thus, continuous attention must be given to this issue. Various strategies, be it structural or cultural, need to be analysed in order to solve the problem of multiculturalism in these three countries.OBJECTIVES
1. To identify the problem of multiculturalism in Southeast Asia and propose sustainable approaches to address the problem.
2. To identify potential groups to build a network and strengthen intercultural dialogue in the three countries.
3. To compare literatures and researches on multiculturalism in order to develop a new and comprehensive direction in multiculturalism studies within the three countries.
1. Identification of problems surrounding multiculturalism and proposed solutions in the context of Southeast Asia.
2. The establishment of a regional network between the various stakeholders in the three countries.
3. Proposed solutions to develop new study in multiculturalism in Southeast Asia.
1) The Wahid Institute
2) Yayasan Paramadina Mulya
3) Pusat Studi Islam dan Kebudayaan (PSIK)
4) Pusat Pengkajian Islam dan Masyarakat (PPIM), Jakarta
5) Center for Asian Studies (CENAS)
6) International Conference on Islam and Peace (ICIP)
7) Nahdlatul Ulama
8) International Conference on Islamic Scholar (ICIS)
9) Gereja Kristen Indonesia (GKI)
10) Maarif Institute
11) Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia (LIPI)
12) National Technological University (NTU, Singapore)
13) Asian Muslin Action Network (AMAN)
14) Lakpesdam NU
15) Perhimpunan Pengembangan Pesantren dan Masyarakat (P3M)
16) DR. Mahmud Syaltut, UI Jakarta
17) DR. Syaiful Umam, UIN Syarief Hidayatullah Jakarta
1) Institut Kajian Dasar
2) Sisters in Islam
3) Islamic Renaissance Front
1) Leftwrite Center
2) Centre for Contemporary Islamic Studies
3) The Reading Group
4) Department of Malay Studies, National University of Singapore
a) Globalization and New Challenges in Building Cultural Identities in Southeast Asia.
b) Role of Islam in Strengthening Multiculturalism: Experiences from Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore.
c) Rights of Minorities within the Multicultural and Islamic Framework.
Day 1 - Monday, 5 Dec
09.00-09.15 Opening Ceremony and Welcoming Remarks
09.15 -10.15 Keynote Address:
1. Gus Dur and Multiculturalism by Yenny Zannuba Wahid ( Director, The Wahid Institute, Indonesia)
2. Multiculturalism in Southeast Asia by DR. Muhammad Ali (California University, USA)
10-15-11.45 Tea Break
11.45-13.15 Sessions I: Academic Approaches to Multiculturalism Movements in Southeast Asia
1. Post-Traditionalism and Islam in Indonesiaby DR. Rumadi (Researcher, The Wahid Institute, Indonesia)
2. Islam and Multiculturalism in Southeast Asia by DR. Azhar Ibrahim Alwee (Visiting Fellow, Department of Malay Studies, National University of Singapore)
3. Islam in Malaysia and the Multicultural Framework by DR. Ahmad Fuad Rahmat (Islamic Renaissance Front, Malaysia)
13.15-14.15 Lunch Break
14.15 -15.45 Session II: Religious Movements and Challenges to Multiculturalism in Southeast Asia
1. Multiculturalism and Gender Movements in Malaysia and Indonesia by Norhayati Kaprawi (Film-maker and activist, Malaysia)
2. Muslim Minority and Multiculturalism in South East Asia by Ahmad Suaedy, Indonesia (The Wahid Institute, Indonesia)
3. Religious Fundamentalism and Multicultural Citizenship by Mohamed Imran Mohamed Taib (Deputy-Director-General, Center for Contemporary Islamic Studies, Singapore).
15.45-16.15 Tea Break
16.15-17.45 Session III: Movie Presentations
17.45-18.00 End of Day 1
18.30-21.00 Dinner at Yenny's House
Day 2 - Tuesday, 6 Dec
09.00-11.00 Session I: Focus Group Discussion
Sharing by selected representatives/participants of multicultural movements in individual countries.11.00-11.30 Tea Break
11.30-13.00 Session II: Charting the Next Agenda
Discussion on setting up a regional network to facilitate emergence of multicultural movements in Southeast Asia.
13.00-14.00 Lunch and Preparation for Study Visit
14.00 -18.00 Study Visit to Several Civil Society Groups in Jakarta
1. Lakpesdam NU Jakarta
2. Pusat Pengkajian Islam dan Masyarakat (PPIM) Jakarta
18.00-21.00 Dinner at Suaedy's House
21.00 Closingof Activities